Most hoses are made up of three components: Tube, Reinforcement, and Cover. Each of these components is usually adhered to the adjacent components by bonding agents or thin layers of specially compounded rubber.
Hose. A Flexible conduit consisting of a tube, reinforcement, and an outer cover.
Tube. The innermost element made of rubber or plastic, or a combination of both. The tube must be resistant to the material it is intended to convey
Reinforcement. Textile, plastic or metal reinforcement, alone or combined, built into the body of the hose. The primary function is to withstand internal pressures and external forces
Cover. The outer element made of rubber, plastic, metal or textile materials. The primary function of the cover is to protect the reinforcement from damage and the environment.
Flexibility is determined by the minimum bend radius and the amount of force required to bend the hose. The minimum bend radius is defined as the radius to which the hose can be bent in service without damaging or appreciably shortening the life of the product. Perhaps more important in determining flexibility, the force-to-bend is defined as the amount of stress required to induce bending around a specified radius. The less force that is required, the easier the product is to maneuver in the field. Different hose constructions may require significantly different forces to attain the same minimum bend radius. Generally, the preferred hose is the more flexible hose, provided all other properties are essentially equivalent.